Babies are born with immature immune systems that can fight most germs though, but there are some diseases they can’t handle. Therein comes the need for vaccinations.
Immunizations are an essential part of well child care. Vaccines reduce your child’s risk of infection by working with their body’s natural defences to help safely develop immunity to potentially life-threatening diseases.
The Moppets clinic is your one-stop destination for all vaccination requirements for your little one till they reach 18 years of age. We recommend all the routine childhood vaccinations as directed by the government of India and also annual flu shots for children.
Following the recommended vaccine schedule provides your child with the best protection from potentially serious diseases. Download the copy of the schedule here.
Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is a vaccine for tuberculosis (TB) disease. This is usually given to the baby at birth on left upper arm. BCG vaccine will produce a scar at the site of injection
Hepatitis B Vaccine
It is given in 3 doses. First dose or zero dose is given at birth along with BCG. Subsequent doses at 1 month and then at 6 months of age. It can also be given in combination with DTP/IPV/HiB vaccine.
IPV is the injectable form of polio vaccine. It is usually given at ages 2 months, 4 months, 6 months and a booster at-18 months, and then at 4–6 years.
IPV is usually given in a combination vaccine along with other vaccines but can be given separately also.
Oral Polio Vaccine is the oral formulation of polio vaccine, which is given as drops. Though IPV is the preferred mode of immunization, however alone OPV can also provide sufficient protection. A combination of IPV and OPV however will give better protection.
DTa/DTw Vaccine DIPHTHERIA,TETANUS PERTUSSIS (WHOOPING COUGH) - PERTUSSIS
Vaccine is available as aP – (acellular Pertussis) and wP (whole cell pertussis).
They are both very effective vaccines with the efficacy of whole cell being marginally better than acellular., The other major difference between the two being that ‘aP’ –gives lesser reactions like fever and pain at site of injection than ‘wP’ so the baby is more comfortable with the acellular.
‘aP’ is however very useful in children with history of birth anoxia/trauma and febrile convulsions etc.
It is usually given at ages 2 months, 4 months, 6 months and a booster at–18 months, and then at 4–6 years in combination with HiB with or without IPV and Hepatitis B vaccine.
Haemophilus Infuenzae B (HiB) is a bacteria which causes blood infections (Septicemia), ear infections, bronchitis and brain infections (meningitis) in children under the age of 5 years.
This vaccine is available in combination with the DPT vaccine and not given separately.
Pneumococcal Vaccine (PCV10/PCV13)
2 types of pneumococcal vaccines are available: PCV10 and PCV13. Both are equally good. This prevents against common childhood penumonia. 4 doses are administered usually along with DPT vaccine; i.e. at 2, 4, 6 months and then booster at 16 to 18 months.
Rotavirus vaccine is a vaccine used to protect against rotavirus infections, which are the leading cause of severe diarrhea among young children. This vaccine is given in 2 or 3 doses before the age of 6 months and is given orally.
Measles Mumps and Rubella Vaccine
The MMR vaccine protects children and adults from measles, mumps, and rubella. 3 doses are required at 9 months, 15 months and between 4 to 6 years.
Influenza vaccines, also known as flu shots are vaccines that protect against infection by influenza viruses. New strains of the vaccines are developed twice a year, as the influenza virus rapidly changes.
This vaccine is given from the age of 6 months onwards. Children are given two doses in the first year – 4-6 weeks apart and subsequently yearly doses are to be given primarily at the start of flu season.
TYPHOID CONJUGATE Vaccine
This vaccine prevents typhoid fever. The 1 st dose can be given between the age of 6 months to 1 year and booster dose at 2 years of age.No subsequent doses are required.
If no typhoid vaccine has been given earlier, it can be administered at any age – and a booster dose may be give after 2 years.
However in case of using the older vaccine or the polysaccharide one, a booster dose is required every 3 years.
Hepatitis A Vaccine
Hepatitis A Vaccine is given for prevention against hepatitis A or the water borne jaundice. 1st dose at 1 year of age and booster between 18 months to 2 years of age
Chicken pox Vaccine
This is for prevention of chicken pox. 2 doses are required with 1st dose being administered at 15 months of age along with MMR vaccine and 2 nd at 5 years of age.
Vaccines in 2nd year
Meningococcal Vaccine prevents one of the most serious forms of meningitis caused by meningococci. It is given in a single dose (in India) after the age of 2 years – till adolescent and young adulthood.
Vaccines at 4 ½ – 5 years
DTaP +IPV booster , MMR and Chicken Pox Boosters. Typhoid booster required if only 1 dose has been given earlier or a polysaccharide vaccine has been administered previously
And any catch up vaccines which may not have been given for any reason earlier.
AGE GROUP – VACCINES FOR OLDER CHILDREN & ADOLESCENTS (5-6 YEARS TO 18 YEARS)
HPV (Human Papilloma Virus) vaccine, also known to cause Cancer of the Cervix (mouth of uterus) given in 3 doses
- a) zero, 1 and 6 months
- b) zero, 2 and 6 months.
This vaccine is recommended for all females from 10 years to 45 years age.
- Needs to be given to all adults every 5-10 years.
- No in between doses are required in between for trivial injuries – unless there is a major accident/trauma.